All living things are made up of chemicals! You must understand the basic structures of chemicals and how they react, in order to understand how living things function. All organisms have a metabolism, which is basically a bunch of chemical reactions that involve the storage, release and use of energy. All living things are made up of organic molecules. There are four main classes of organic molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Each type of molecule has a different function. You can recognize them by their chemical composition, their structure and their properties. ATP is a special organic molecule that stores/contains energy. Cells need a constant supply of ATP to power all of their functions. Enzymes are special protein molecules that speed up all of the chemical reactions in our cells. There are hundreds of different types of enzymes, each with a specific function. Some enzymes help break apart large molecules, such as the food we eat, into smaller molecules that can then be used as building blocks. Some enzymes aid in the building of new cell parts, by combining these smaller molecules, or building blocks. Other enzymes help to modify existing molecules into something new.
Objective: Recognize that biological organisms are composed primarily of very few elements. The six most common are C, H, N, O, P, and S. Std.1.1
Objective: Describe the basic molecule structures and primary functions of the four major categories of organic molecules. (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) Std. 1.2
Objective: Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, that have an effect on enzymes. Std. 1.3
Objective: HS-LS1-6. Construct an explanation based on evidence that organic molecules are primarily composed of six elements, where carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms from carbohydrates may combine with nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus to form monomers that combine to form large carbon-based macromolecules.
Clarification Statements: Monomers include amino acids, mono- and disaccharides, nucleotides, and fatty acids. Organic macromolecules include proteins, carbohydrates (polysaccharides), amino acids, nucleic acids, and lipids.
State Assessment Boundary: Details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of specific macromolecules are not expected in state assessment.
Objective: HS-LS1-1. Construct a model of transcription and translation to explain the roles of DNA and RNA that code for proteins that regulate and carry out essential functions of life.
Clarification Statements: Proteins that regulate and carry out essential functions of life include enzymes (which speed up chemical reactions), structural proteins (which provide structure and enable movement), and hormones and receptors (which send and receive signals). The model should show the double-stranded structure of DNA, including genes as part of DNA’s transcribed strand, with complementary bases on the non-transcribed strand.
State Assessment Boundaries: Specific names of proteins or specific steps of transcription and translation are not expected in state assessment. Cell structures included in transcription and translation will be limited to nucleus, nuclear membrane, and ribosomes for state assessment.